Discover the secret of Machu Picchu facts.
Machu Picchu is one of the most important tourist destinations in Peru and South America, currently more than 3000 people visit Machu Picchu every day. But there are still many questions about how to visit Machu Picchu, here are the most important about Machu Picchu facts
Best Historical Machu Picchu facts
when was machu picchu built
According to archaeological estimates in the fifteenth century in the years 1438 during the reign of Pachacutec, the Ninth Inca who governed the Tawantinsuyo, this city was built, the work lasted approximately 30 years, and then it was populated by a select group of Priests, Ajllas ( Virgins of the Sun), and aspirants to the priesthood and the Inca government.
Why Machu Picchu was abandoned
Upon the arrival of the Spaniards between 1537 and 1545 approximately Manco Inca ordered to abandon Machu Picchu, blocking the access roads, and taking the most valuable objects, until the arrival of the investigator Hiram Bingham.
Machu Picchu was not discovered by Hiram Bingham
History tells us that Machu Picchu was discovered for the first time by Hiram Bingham, but the story is different.
From 1890 to 1911 it was known by local people, it does not stand out that it has been visited by treasure hunters, it is known that Agustin Lizarrga arrived at Machu Picchu in 901 in the same way Raymondi in 1865. On June 24, 1911, guided by the native Melchor Arteaga, the boy Pablito guided Dr. Hiram Bingham, who visited Machu Picchu for the first time.
Then Hiram Bingham is who gave scientific value, historical value, and returned the attention to this citadel, in 1912 the “National Geographic and Yale University”, directed by Hiram Bingham and the support of the Peruvian government, conducted excavations and recovering the buildings covered with vegetation, and then be abandoned until 1934.
Since when is Machu Picchu given historical value?
In 1934 the Patronage of Archaeology sponsored by the Spanish government took control of Machu Picchu and rescued it from the undergrowth, later several restorations were made. In 1941, the district of Machu Picchu was created, and at the same time the city of Machu Picchu was declared a National Archaeological Park.
The most popular visits to Machu Picchu.
In the forties, the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda, after his visit to the Inca city of Machu Picchu, inspired by the magical place, wrote his famous poem: Canto general, Alturas de Machu Picchu:
“”Then on the earth’s ladder I have climbed
Among the atrocious tangle of the lost jungles
To you, Machu Picchu”
Another of the visitors of this time is Ernesto Guevara de la Serna, “Che Guevara”, who after visiting Machu Picchu, in his book “Travel Notes” refers:
“Village that kept in its enclosure the last members of a free people”.
The Inca Trail to Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu currently has 3 access routes, among the most important is the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu, a journey that takes approximately 4 days from km 88 to the Inca citadel of Machu Picchu.
Along the Inca Trail you can observe different archaeological centers that connected with Machu Picchu, terraces, temples, it could be mentioned that the Inca Trail represented the first trip made by Manco Capac, when they left the Island of the Sun in Titicaca, on their way to the valley of Cusco.
Best Architectural Machu Picchu facts
Machu Picchu construction area
The area that Machu Picchu was built covers 90 thousand square meters, comprising the agricultural and urban sector, including roads and terraces, temples and religious centers. Machu Picchu represents an intelligent design that can be seen from the Waynapicchu, giving it the shape of a bird turning in full flight.
Used Construction materials
One of the great benefits that the Incas had to build Machu Picchu, is that they had the main material in the same place, in the same citadel is the stone quarry, where to extract to make their constructions.
The rocks are white and gray granite, composed of mica, fedespato, quartz, and moskovita, also have been found black slate slabs and cylindrical stones of green color, which were extracted from the top of the Machu Picchu hill.
The water distribution system In Machu Picchu
It is formed by canals and redistribution sources, the water was captured from a spring located in the Machu Picchu mountain, which flowed through a stone channel that, crossing the agricultural area, entered the urban area, and then reached the 16 sources beautifully carved in the same bedrock and adapted to the slope as stands, where it flowed constantly through a system of redistribution by gravity. From these fountains, the inhabitants of Machu Picchu were supplied with the liquid element in ceramic containers, to then take them to their homes.
Structure of the enclosures In Machu Picchu.
Most of its construction are of one and two floors, rectangular and in some cases semicircular, most of them built on terraces. The size of the enclosures, in their buildings are built in a simple way and beautifully accommodated to the orography of the place, most of them are small and adequate to the space limitation.
Doors and Windows.
Generally of trapezoidal shape. The windows are small, without frames or covers, as they were used as ventilators. The doors or entrances show different qualities, some of them with double jambs because they correspond to a building of hierarchy. Their lintels are monolithic, although some were only made of logs. It is not known how the closing leaves (doors) were, in certain cases in both sides of the interior part they present a trunk with a cylindrical stone fastener, possibly to tie and to assure a door of interlaced sticks.
Most of them were of double slope, although there were also of one and four waters, with pronounced slope to avoid the filtration of the rains. Their structures had wooden beams tied with lianas and ropes of llama leather or vegetable fiber, covered entirely with straw.
They present inclination that oscillates between 3 to 7 degrees. The rigging is diverse, which are related to the function and hierarchy of the enclosures. Most of the buildings are of rustic or simple walls, such as platforms, qolqas, k’allankas and dwellings, etc. Those of fine finish reflect the high rank of the buildings, for example: the Temple of the Sun, the Temple of the Three Windows, the Temple of the Virgins of the Sun. Most of the walls have trapezoidal niches or cupboards, which served as shelves to place the offerings.
They are narrow, adapted to the slopes and united by several terraces; designed for the transit of people and camelids.
Of streets, squares and patios were constituted by a layer of clay and compacted granite sand, in such a way that when it rained it did not produce mud and allowed the water to flow towards the drainage channels. The floors of the interiors were also compacted with sand, clay and lime, the latter to keep the heat in.
Why Machu Picchu was not destroyed by earthquakes
When building Machu Picchu, the Inca engineers knew that they were building between two geological faults, however, they prepared the terrain well making it indestructible to seismic movements, seismic movements in Peru are constant because it is located in the Pacific Fire Centurion, most of its buildings both in Machu Picchu and other Inca cities, are prepared to withstand seismic movements, which is why Peru can say that it has archaeological centers for many year.
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